Accusative Case

Table Of Contents

Accusative: The Case Of The Object

The main parts of sentence are the subject, the predicate (verb) and the object. The subject tells who is taking action. The predicate tells what is happening. The object, which always is in accusative case, tells the target of action.

Еддард
чита́ет
кни́гу
о
исто́рии
вели́ких
домо́в.

Edward is reading a book about the history of great houses.

The object is typically a noun phrase, where possible adjectives are also in accusative. A noun phrase consists of a substantive, pronoun or numeral and adjectives which qualify the main word.

Братья
ночно́го
дозо́ра
но́сит
черную
оде́жду.

The brothers of Night Watch wear black clothes.

In addition, some prepositions use accusative.

Accusative Prepositions

Many prepositions of location (в, на, под, о) can take two cases. When answering the "Where something is?" the following noun is in prepositional. When answering "To where something is going?" they use accusative.

PrepositionMeaningExampleIn English
в + accusativeinto, to inside
Он
ушёл
с
соба́кой
во
тьму́.
He took the dog outside to the dark.
за + accusative for, per
Сила
и
че́сть!
За
орду́!

Он
собира́л
два
ведро́
я́год
за
ва́хту.
Strength and honor! For The Horde!
He collected two buckets of berries per trip.
на + accusative onto, to top of
По́сле
плавения Арья
вы́лезла
на́
бе́рег.
After a swim Arya climbed (out of water) to the beach.
о + accusativeagainst
Он
ударился
голово́й
о
столб.
He bumped his head against a post. (tatoeba.org)
по + accusativeup to, as far as (location)
Рыбак
бы́л
по
колено
в
воде́.
Fisherman was knee deep in water.
под + accusativeto under
Засунь
гра́дусник
по́д
мы́шку.
Put the thermometer under your arm. (tatoeba.org)
про + accusativeabout
Я
зна́ю
всё
про
э́ту
ситуа́цию.
I know all about the situation. (tatoeba.org)
с + accusative about one
через + accusativethrough
Ко́шка
не́
заметил
никаки́х
мышей,
когда́
оно́
ходи́л
че́рез
коню́шню.
The cat didn't notice any mice while walking through the stables.
через + accusativeafter some time
Че́рез
два
го́да
её
котята
нача́л
лови́ть
мышей.
After two years its kittens will start to catch mice.

Accusative Inflection Is A Question Of Life And Death

The accusative form depends on whether the noun is aninmate like "mule" or "policeman" or inanimate like "stone" or "emptiness". For masculine and plural, the accusative form is like genetive for animate nouns and like nominative for inanimante nouns.

Singular accusative neuters are always like nominative ones.

Singular accusative feminine nouns have dedicated, perfectly regular inflection.

The same rules apply both to nouns and adjectives qualifying them.

GenderAccusativeExampleIn Russian
Animate MasculineLike genitive Остерега́йся
э́того
челове́ка.
Watch out for that man. (tatoeba.org)
Inanimate MasculineLike nominative
Вспомни
про́шлый
го́д.
Remember last year. (tatoeba.org)
Animate & Inanimate Feminineа -> у
я -> ю
яя -> юю
ь -> ь
Она́
ударилась
но́вую
маши́ну
о
си́нюю
две́рь.
She bumped the new car against the blue door.
Animate & Inanimate
Neuter
Like nominative
Он
объясни́л
мне
де́ло.
He explained the matter (inanimate) to me. (tatoeba.org)
Ры́царь
уби́л
ужа́сный
чудо́вище.
The knight killed the horrible monster (animate).
Animate PluralLike genitive
Внача́ле
он
имити́ровал
знамени́тых
худо́жников.
In the beginning he imitated famous artists (masc.).
Терпе́ть
не́
могу́
таки́х
девушек.
I hate girls (fem.) like that. (tatoeba.org)
Их
до́чь
говори́т,
что́
ви́дит
чудовищ.
Their daughter claims to see monsters (n.). (tatoeba.org)
Inanimate PluralLike nominative
Я
люблю́
ма́ленькие
го́рода.
I like small towns (masc.). (tatoeba.org)
Он
продаёт
маши́ны.
He sells cars (fem.). (tatoeba.org)
Запомни
мои́
слова́.
Keep my words (n.) in mind. (tatoeba.org)

Copyright (C) Simo Härkönen 2017. All rights reserved. Example sentences from tatoeba.org are copyrighted by their respective owners.